About the Journal

The SPUP Light Explorer is the official Refereed Graduate School Faculty Research Journal of St. Paul University Philippines. It is published annually by the Research and Publications Office. It contains a multidisciplinary array of researches covering topics along the Arts and Sciences, Teacher Education, Accountancy and Business, Information Technology, Engineering and Health Sciences. All papers
in this journal were subjected to double-blind refereeing system.

The journal’s title carries the symbolism descriptive of researchers who are innately driven to uncover truth, shedding light to various issues and concerns affecting the local, national and global community. Researches in the Graduate School are primarily meant to enlighten their readers for them to become better decision-makers in the practice of their professions.

The content of each research article carries the opinions, ideas and insights reflective of the writers’ own personal perspectives. Hence, accountability, both legal and ethical, rests solely with the authors.