In-Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Betel Palm Tree (Areca catechu) Against Staphylococcus aureus
Keywords:Medicine, Antibacterial Effect, Antibacterial Resistance, Betel Palm Leaf (Areca catechu)
Antibacterial resistance is a critical global health threat. Without urgent actions, the world will face a post-antibiotic era where common infections can kill again. In response, plant-based antibacterials are promising as they contain secondary metabolites with antibacterial properties. In this study, the researchers examined the antibacterial efficacy of Betel Palm Tree (Areca catechu) leaf extract against Staphylococcus aureus. An experimental research design was employed to assess the antibacterial efficacy of Betel palm leaf extract. This method ascertained the cause-and-effect link between the independent variable (Betel Palm Leaf Extract) and the dependent variable (Staphylococcus aureus).
Moreover, Ethanolic extraction was used in this study, and Nutrient Agar Well Diffusion was used as the testing procedure. Results are then examined to see whether there is a significant difference between the treatment and the positive control (Chloramphenicol). The results revealed that the ethanolic leaf extract of the Betel Palm Tree (Areca catechu) had no effect against the colony of Staphylococcus aureus, as demonstrated with a 0 antibacterial index. This shows that the plant extract is ineffective in inhibiting the growth of the bacteria. In contrast, the positive control (Chloramphenicol) had an antibacterial index of 4.0, indicating its effectiveness against the bacteria. Based on the data analysis, the ineffectiveness of Betel Palm Tree (Areca Catechu) ethanolic leaf extract in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus was due to several factors such as low concentration of phytochemicals, maceration technique in extraction, usage of ethanol as the solvent, non-isolation of phytochemical constituents from the extract, and selection of bacteria. This demonstrates the need to conduct the study with different types of methods in testing the effectiveness of the leaf to validate the result of this study.