Transforming Waste Into Sustainable Building Material: Exploring the Potential of Agricultural and Paper-Based Fiber-Cement Ceiling Boards


  • John Hero Panahon General de Jesus College
  • Sean Enrique Carreon General de Jesus College
  • Jose Adrian Castillo General de Jesus College
  • Jayvee Gonzales General de Jesus College


Civil engineering, Fiber-cement ceiling board, waste, alternative


One of the common materials used in the construction industry is fiber-cement ceiling boards. Numerous compositions of it have been discovered, including the usage of cellulose fiber and asbestos. However, the adverse environmental and health implications caused by these components propelled the researchers to explore sustainable alternatives for producing fiber-cement ceiling boards. In particular, this study explored a new source of fiber that can be obtained from industrial waste papers. Moreover, agricultural waste, such as rice husk and rice husk ash, was then incorporated as a replacement for the composite of commercial ceiling boards. Through a systematic approach involving material gathering, preparation, mixing, molding, pressing, curing, and polishing, samples with varying component ratios conforming to the dimensions of 600x600 x8 mm³ were created. These boards were subjected to ASTM E119, ASTM D570, and BS EN 12467 testing protocols to determine the feasibility of integrating these waste composites into producing fire-resistant, low water-absorbing, and flexible fiber-cement ceiling boards. The results were then evaluated by careful comparisons with the standard, guaranteeing its reliability and effectiveness. A lightweight characteristic became evident within the spectrum of board weights, ranging from 4,304 g to 4,484 g. This attribute underscores the boards' ability to balance structural integrity and ease of handling. The fire resistance test yielded exceptional results, as the samples maintained remarkably low unexposed side temperatures, ranging from 38.1°C to 51.9°C when subjected to a temperature of 140°C for 5 minutes.

Furthermore, the water absorption test displayed the boards' impressive resistance to water infiltration, with absorption percentages from 4.286% to 5.488%. Moreover, the boards exhibited noteworthy flexural strength, as evidenced by the maximum load capacities of 333.62 N to 498.2 N, with flexural strength ranging from 6.516 N/mm² to 9.730 N/mm². The findings conclusively demonstrate the successful production of cost-effective, lightweight, and eco-friendly fiber-cement ceiling boards utilizing agricultural and industrial wastes. These materials, chosen as replacements, significantly contributed to the superior performance observed in various tests, including water absorption, fire resistance, and flexural strength, surpassing the standards set in each aspect.