Effectiveness of Waste Materials as Substitute for Aggregates in Making Concrete Hollow Blocks


  • Glen Andrei Manalo General de Jesus College
  • Aaron John de Vera General de Jesus College
  • Paulo de Guzman General de Jesus College
  • Rick Jordan Damian General de Jesus College


Civil engineering, concrete hollow blocks, waste materials, aggregates, recycling


Waste management is crucial to prevent adverse environmental impacts, such as pollution and depletion of natural resources. According to the Environmental Management Bureau, around 1,400 metric tons of healthcare waste were generated daily from June 2020 to April 2022. Different waste management strategies include waste reduction, reuse, recycling, and disposal. Proper waste management practices can lead to various benefits, such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, resource conservation, and job opportunities in the waste management sector. This study investigates using wastes, precisely Demolished Crushed Concrete (DCC), Coconut Coir Fiber (CCF), and Polyester Fiber, as substitutes for aggregates in producing concrete hollow blocks. The resulting blocks' compressive strength, water absorption, heat resistance, and density were evaluated and compared to those made with conventional aggregates. The sample with 25%(DCC), 3% Coconut coir, .25% Polyester Fiber and a curing time of 28 days, which is the lowest sample with waste added, achieved (5.54)MPA/803 Psi in the compression strength test. The sample with the lowest waste added has the highest compressive strength compared to the samples with 35%(DCC), 5% Coconut coir, .50% Polyester Fiber and 40%(DCC), 8% Coconut coir, 1% Polyester Fiber. In the test done by the researchers, all the samples are dropped at 4ft. The sample contains 40%(DCC), 8% Coconut coir, and 1% Polyester Fiber with a 28-day curing time. The sample takes (2) drops before it gets damaged and cracked.

Regarding heat resistance, the sample with 25%(DCC), 3% Coconut coir, and .25% Polyester Fiber absorbed heat of 49% with its initial temperature of 36.5˚C and final temperature of 54.4˚C.

Regarding water absorption, the samples made by the researchers with 40%(DCC), 8% Coconut coir, 1% Polyester, and a 28-day curing time is the lowest compared to the other sample and the standard hollow blocks. The researchers concluded that the sample containing 25%(DCC), 3% Coconut coir, and .25% Polyester Fiber of the total weight of the cement achieved the highest consistency when mixing the mixture compared to the other two with higher ratios. Although adding those specific wastes helps to build strength, As the waste content rises, the strength does not rise linearly. In terms of durability, the waste added to the concrete hollow blocks significantly increases their durability.